Different Between Data And Information:-
Data refers to the facts and figures in raw form i.e. not in organized form. Data is the raw material given as input to the computer for processing. For example, the item code, description, quantity and price of items purchased in a store are data. When this data is entered into the Computer and processed, it prints the bill which is the Output of the computer.
information is the processed or organised form of data. When data is processed by the Computer and it is properly arranged and organized, it is converted to information. It is also called the Output of Computer and is the meaningful form of data. For example, the names of students and their marks in all the subjects is data. When it is processed by the computer, the result sheets and report cards produced is information.
File Management System In Database:-
A file (or file based) management System is a Collection of programs used for managing data stored in various files. Each program within a file management system is developed independently and it defines and manages its own data. in file management system records in One file are not related to the records in any other file. This approach leads to many problems which include data duplication in different files, data inconsistency, sharing of data and lack of flexibility in organizing and querying the data.
For example, a company may store a salesman’s name, address telephone number and Commission rate in a file in Accounts Department and the same information may be stored in another file in Sales Department. The accounts Department, for example, may change the commission rate of salesman but the Sales Department may fail to update its file. This will produce reports calculated with Out-of-data figures. The inconsistency in files occurred due to duplication of same data in files. This is the main problem faced in file management systems.
in order to solve the problems of traditional file management system for managing data, the concept of a database was introduced. A database is a Collection of related data. For example, consider the names, telephone numbers and addresses of the people you know. You may have recorded this data in an indexed address book Or you stored it on your computer’s hard disk using software such as Microsoft Access or Excel. This is a collection of data having implicit meaning and hence is a database.
A database can be of any size and Complexity. For example, a database containing names and telephone numbers of your friends may have only a few records. On the other hand,a database containing information about all the citizens of a country for National identity card (NC) may contain millions of record.
A database may be created and maintained manually or it may be computerized. The library card catalogue is an example of a manually created and maintained database. A computerized database is created and maintained by a database management system, for example Library management system, Stock control system, Examination Control system.